Journal of Applied Toxicology
1 Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, Toulouse, France - 2 Coty, Darmstadt, Germany - 3 The Procter & Gamble Company, Ohio, Cincinnati, USA - 4 Unilever, Sharnbrook, UK - 5 Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany - 6 Cosmetics Europe, Brussels, Belgium - 7 L'Oreal, Aulnay-Sous-Bois, France
Comparison of the metabolism of 10 cosmetics-relevant chemicals in EpiSkin™ S9 subcellular fractions and in vitro human skin explants
An understanding of the bioavailability of topically applied cosmetics ingredients is key to predicting their local skin and systemic toxicity and making a safety assessment. We investigated whether short-term incubations with S9 from the reconstructed epidermal skin model, EpiSkin™, would give an indication of the rate of chemical metabolism and produce similar metabolites to those formed in incubations with human skin explants. Both have advantages: EpiSkin™ S9 is a higher-throughput assay, while the human skin explant model represents a longer incubation duration (24 hours) model integrating cutaneous distribution with metabolite formation.
Here, we compared the metabolism of 10 chemicals (caffeine, vanillin, cinnamyl alcohol, propylparaben, 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, resorcinol, 4-chloroaniline, 2-amino-3-methyl3H-imidazo[4,5-F]quinoline and 2-acetyl aminofluorene) in both models. Both models were shown to have functional Phase 1 and 2 enzymes, including cytochrome P450 activities. There was a good concordance between the models with respect to the level of metabolism (stable vs. slowly vs. extensively metabolized chemicals) and major early metabolites produced for eight chemicals. Discordant results for two chemicals were attributed to a lack of the appropriate cofactor (NADP+) in S9 incubations (cinnamyl alcohol) and protein binding influencing chemical uptake in skin explants (4-chloroaniline). These data support the use of EpiSkin™ S9 as a screening assay to provide an initial indication of the metabolic stability of a chemical applied topically. If required, chemicals that are not metabolized by EpiSkin™ S9 can be tested in longer-term incubations with in vitro human explant skin to determine whether it is slowly metabolized or not metabolized at all.