J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009 Sep;116(3-5):178-86
L'Oréal, Research & Innovation
Expression profiles of phases 1 and 2 metabolizing enzymes in human skin and the reconstructed skin models Episkin and full thickness model from Episkin.
BACKGROUND: Episkin and full thickness model from Episkin (FTM) are human skin models obtained from in vitro growth of keratinocytes into the five typical layers of the epidermis. FTM is a full thickness reconstructed skin model that also contains fibroblasts seeded in a collagen matrix.OBJECTIVES: To assess whether enzymes involved in chemical detoxification are expressed in Episkin and FTM and how their levels compare with the human epidermis, dermis and total skin.METHODS: Quantification of the mRNA expression levels of phases 1 and 2 metabolizing enzymes in cultured Episkin and FTM and human epidermis, dermis and total skin using Realtime PCR.RESULTS: The data show that the expression profiles of 61 phases 1 and 2 metabolizing enzymes in Episkin, FTM and epidermis are generally similar, with some exceptions. Cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes and flavin monooxygenases are expressed at low levels, while phase 2 metabolizing enzymes are expressed at much higher levels, especially, glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), steroid sulfotransferase (SULT2B1b), and N-acetyl transferase (NAT5). The present study also identifies the presence of many enzymes involved in cholesterol, arachidonic acid, leukotriene, prostaglandin, eicosatrienoic acids, and vitamin D3 metabolisms.CONCLUSION: The present data strongly suggest that Episkin and FTM represent reliable and valuable in vitro human skin models for studying the function of phases 1 and 2 metabolizing enzymes in xenobiotic metabolisms. They could be used to replace invasive methods or laboratory animals for skin experiments.